The student understands the relationship between force and motion within systems.

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Describe

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how Newton's three laws of motion act simultaneously within systems

Such as

vehicle restraints,

sports activities,

amusement park rides,

Earth's tectonic activities,

rocket launches

## Newton's first law of motion

(Also known as the law of inertia)

This law states that an object at rest will remain at rest, and an object in motion will continue moving at a constant velocity in a straight line unless acted upon by an external force. This implies that objects tend to resist changes in their state of motion. If an object is stationary, it will stay stationary unless something pushes or pulls it. Similarly, if an object is already moving, it will keep moving in a straight line at a constant speed unless a force acts on it to change its motion.

## Newton's second law of motion

(This is the mathematical expression of force and acceleration)

This law states that the acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the force acting on it and inversely proportional to its mass. This means that if the same force is applied to two objects of different masses, the object with the lower mass will experience greater acceleration. The formula for this law is Force= mass x acceleration (F=ma). And this law only states that the acceleration of an object increases when the force applied to it increases which describes the impact of the net force on the object's motion.

## Newton's third law of motion

(Also known as the law of action and reaction)

This law states that for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. This means that when two objects interact, the forces they exert on each other are equal and opposite. For instance, when a person jumps, they push against the ground with a force, and the ground pushes back with an equal force, propelling the person upwards. Similarly, when a rocket takes off, it pushes fuel (turned into gas) out of the back with great force, and the gas pushes the rocket forward with an equal force.

## Vertical TEKS Alignment

Force, Motion, and Energy - Newton's Laws, Balanced & Unbalanced Forces

6.7.B calculate the net force on an object in a horizontal or vertical direction using diagrams and determine if the forces are balanced or unbalanced;

6.7.C identify simultaneous force pairs that are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction that result from the interactions between objects using Newton's Third Law of Motion.

7.7.D analyze the effect of balanced and unbalanced forces on the state of motion of an object using Newton's First Law of Motion.

## Explainer Video

## coming soon

## Informational Text

Newton's three laws of motion are fundamental principles that describe the behavior of objects in motion. These laws act simultaneously within systems such as in vehicle restraints, sports activities, amusement park rides, Earth's tectonic activities, and rocket launches.

Here are some examples of how Newton's laws apply to these systems:

## Vehicle restraints

First law: An object at rest will remain at rest, and an object in motion will remain in motion at a constant velocity unless acted upon by an unbalanced force. In the case of a car crash, a passenger not wearing a seatbelt will continue moving forward at the same speed as the car before the crash, until they are stopped by an external force, such as the dashboard or windshield...ouch!

Second law: The acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the force applied to it and inversely proportional to its mass. In the case of a car crash, the force applied to a passenger is greater if they are not wearing a seatbelt, and their mass is a factor in determining the severity of their injuries.

Third law: For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. In the case of a car crash, the force of the car hitting another object is equal and opposite to the force of the object hitting the car.

## Sports activities

First law: An object at rest will remain at rest, and an object in motion will remain in motion at a constant velocity unless acted upon by an unbalanced force. In sports such as soccer or football, a ball will continue moving in a straight line at a constant speed unless acted upon by a force, such as a player's foot or a defender's tackle.

Second law: The acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the force applied to it and inversely proportional to its mass. In sports such as baseball or golf, the force applied to a ball by a bat or club determines the ball's acceleration, and the ball's mass is a factor in determining how far it will travel.

Third law: For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. In sports such as basketball or volleyball, the force of a player jumping off the ground is equal and opposite to the force of the ground pushing back up on the player.

## Amusement park rides

First law: An object at rest will remain at rest, and an object in motion will remain in motion at a constant velocity unless acted upon by an unbalanced force. In amusement park rides such as a roller coaster, a rider will continue moving in a straight line at a constant speed unless acted upon by a force, such as a turn or a drop.

Second law: The acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the force applied to it and inversely proportional to its mass. In amusement park rides such as a Ferris wheel or swing ride, the force applied to a rider determines their acceleration, and their mass is a factor in determining how much force is required to move them.

Third law: For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. In amusement park rides such as a bumper car or spinning ride, the force of a rider pushing against the ride is equal and opposite to the force of the ride pushing back on the rider.

## Earth's tectonic activities

First law: An object at rest will remain at rest, and an object in motion will remain in motion at a constant velocity unless acted upon by an unbalanced force. In the case of tectonic plates, they will remain stationary or continue moving at a constant velocity unless acted upon by a force, such as the movement of magma or the collision of plates.

Second law: The acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the force applied to it and inversely proportional to its mass. In the case of tectonic plates, the force applied to them by the movement of magma or the collision of plates determines their acceleration, and their mass is a factor in determining how much force is required to move them.

Third law: For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. In the case of tectonic plates, the force of one plate pushing against another is equal and opposite to the force of the other plate pushing back.

## Rocket launches

First law: An object at rest will remain at rest, and an object in motion will remain in motion at a constant velocity unless acted upon by an unbalanced force. In the case of a rocket launch, the rocket will remain stationary until the force of the engines igniting propels it forward.

Second law: The acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the force applied to it and inversely proportional to its mass. In the case of a rocket launch, the force applied to the rocket by the engines determines its acceleration, and the rocket's mass is a factor in determining how much force is required to move it.

Third law: For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. In the case of a rocket launch, the force of the engines pushing the rocket forward is equal and opposite to the force of the rocket pushing back on the engines.

## Notes Foldable

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Notes Tabbed Foldable

Explainer Book Foldable

## Simulation / Model

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